Volume 52, Issue 2 p. 536-551

Validating a blended teaching readiness instrument for primary/secondary preservice teachers

Douglas E. Archibald

Corresponding Author

Douglas E. Archibald

Addressforcorrespondence: Douglas E. Archibald, Brigham Young University.

Email: [email protected]

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Charles R. GrahamRoss Larsen
First published: 30 December 2020
Citations: 22


Blended learning is the fastest growing teaching modality in North America and much of the world. However, research and training in blended learning are far outpaced by its usage. To remedy this gap, we developed a competency framework and Blended Teaching Readiness Instrument (BTRI) to help teachers and researchers evaluate teacher readiness for blended environments. The purpose of this research is to show that the blended teaching readiness model and accompanying BTRI are reliable for use with teacher candidates both before and after going through a blended teaching course. This knowledge would allow researchers and practitioners to have greater confidence in using the BTRI for future growth curve modeling for the identified blended teaching competencies. To accomplish this, we collected pre- and post-data from teacher candidates across multiple semesters who were studying in a blended teaching course. Using confirmatory factor analysis, we determined the pre-class survey results fell within the range of the four fit statistics cutoffs (RMSEA = 0.045, CFI = 0.933, TLI = 0.929 and SRMR = 0.043). And, the post-class survey results had good fit as well (RMSEA = 0.044, CFI = 0.911, TLI = 0.905 and SRMR = 0.051). We also showed that the factor loadings and communalities were statistically significant. By testing the factors in this way, we make a case for the survey to be a valid and reliable instrument in assessing blended teacher competency. Additionally, we tested the model for measurement invariance and found that we could reliably use the BTRI for pre-post growth modeling.

Practitioner Notes

What is already known about this topic?

  • Blended learning is the fastest growing teaching modality in Canada and the United States, and is expanding rapidly throughout the rest of the world.
  • Teaching in blended learning settings requires distinct skills and dispositions specific to the modality.
  • A blended-teaching-focused competency framework is a necessary element in any blended teacher preparation program. Though there have been attempts to make a blended teaching framework before, none of these exclusively focus on the distinct skills of blended teaching nor have they been validated.

What this paper adds?

  • Describes our free, publicly accessible competency framework that focuses exclusively on blended teaching
  • Validates a concise Blended Teaching Readiness Instrument (BTRI) to go along with the framework.
  • Confirms pre-post measurement invariance for the BTRI which allows for use with pre-post growth modeling.

Implications for practice and policy

  • The competency framework and validation are a theoretical contribution to the rapidly expanding field of blended learning research.
  • With the valid BTRI instrument and framework, teachers can get feedback on their strengths and weaknesses in blended teaching and learn how to improve and help others.